The Influence of Green Barriers on my country's Agricultural Products Trade and Countermeasures
- Categories:Industry News
- Time of issue:2021-08-19 17:31
The Influence of Green Barriers on my country's Agricultural Products Trade and Countermeasures
- Categories:Industry News
- Time of issue:2021-08-19 17:31
The impact of green wall ridges on my country's agricultural product trade and the countermeasures Rodin Chen Jie Since the emergence and development of the trend of sustainable development, environmental issues have become more and more eye-catching. It should be said that in order to implement the sustainable development strategy, it is necessary to establish the legitimacy of the environmental protection exception. Unfortunately, these environmental protection exceptions are being used by emerging trade protectionism to protect trade. This is mainly because the relevant regulations on tariff barriers and traditional non-tariff barriers in the agreement formed by the Uruguay Round negotiations have become more and more stringent, the transparency of trade has improved, and the progress of traditional trade protection has been restricted by the first effect. For trade protection, the righteousness had to seek new trade protection from Shanghai and Shanghai to implement the stewed trade protection strategy. In this context, the theory of green trade protection has quickly become popular. The basic point is that international trade should give priority to protecting the environment, reduce and eliminate the production and sales of products that pollute and damage the environment, and encourage the production and sales of environmentally friendly products to promote the environmentally friendly market. Expansion.
2 On the basis of the principle of non-discrimination, the principle of open market and the principle of fairness, in order to protect the environment and the health of residents, any country has the right to adopt tax and non-tariff measures to control the export of products that affect the environment. 3 Any product Environmental and resource costs should be included in the cost to internalize environmental and resource costs, and their calculation standards should be international standards. 4 In order to make world trade proceed on a fair basis, no country can use any reason as an excuse to provide environmental subsidies to 7-inch enterprises. 5 The implementation of regional economism can directly reflect the impact of the unfavorable environment. This is conducive to increasing people's support for environmental protection measures. The green trade protectionism theory provides a new theoretical basis for trade protectionists. At present, in international trade, green barriers have become an important barrier. The development trend will lead to the impact on international trade land. The types and characteristics of green barriers. Basic types of green barriers. The content of green barriers is relatively wide. , Roughly including the following: 1 Green Technology Standards. In April 1995, developed countries began to implement the international environmental inspection standard system through the control of the International Organization for Standardization, requiring products to meet the 1509000 series standard system. The European Union also moved the 715014000 environmental management system, requiring the products of the European Union countries to go from 4 pre-production to manufacturing and sales. Use and, wherever you are. All stages must meet certain technical standards, 2 green environment. Biao Zhong. The shape of the product or its packaging shows that the product not only meets the quality of the standard bottle, but also meets the environmental protection requirements in the process of production, use, and consumption, and does not harm the ecological environment and human health. For example, Germany’s Blue Angel, Canada’s environmental choice, Japan’s eco-label, the European Union’s European environmental label, and so on. To export products to these countries, the application and review must be qualified and the green pass can be obtained. 3 Green packaging system. It is required that packaging must save resources, reduce waste, facilitate recycling after use, or be easy to decompose naturally. Such as Germany’s German Packaging Waste Disposal Act, Japan’s Recycling Regulations and the Amendment to Waste Removal Conditions> etc. 4 Green sanitation and quarantine system. This kind of system has existed, but it is now being strengthened more and more. In April 1993, the 24th United Nations Codex Committee on Pesticide Residues discussed the maximum residues, maximum re-residues and guiding residues of 176 pesticides in various commodities. 5 Green subsidies. It refers to a method of internalizing capital and environmental costs to reduce external economic effects so that costs and benefits can be unified among producers and operators as much as possible.
Basic content Although the specific practices of different countries are different, there are different degrees of environmental restrictions in the whole process from production, packaging, transportation to use. According to the different stages of product formation and movement, the content includes the restriction measures of the production method and processing process. Now many countries have realized that only the end-point control of the pollution of the product itself is not suitable for the needs, so they have formulated the following; the processing method must comply with the requirements of the PPMPm №ssinS. In the technical trade barrier agreement signed in the Uruguay Round, PlWlmJ made a breakthrough provision for the overseas implementation of 1, that is, if this small standard affects the product function, the importing country has the right to restrict the import of products that do not meet the domestic standards. 2 Regulations on loading, storage, and transportation at the customs location, or even transportation. 3 Restrictive measures related to product component performance and use. Restrictive measures in this regard involve communication. The content included is too much, and often changes, and it is often difficult to adapt. For example, one copy, Canadians, etc. require one to spend 1. The anvil containing aspergillus in Chinese goods shall not exceed 1 part of a catty. France prohibits Jing erythromycin candies It is stipulated that the pesticide residues in imported vegetables shall not exceed 10 parts per million and so on.
The characteristics of green trade barriers can be seen from its several contents. Green trade barriers have the following characteristics: 1 Strong technicality, that is, the identification of the production, use, consumption and processing process of the product includes more technical components. 2 Larger flexibility, the mountain factory prepares the national environmental protection standard + system, the choice is also large. 3 Compared with 1, the destructive nature of Xu Jing's use of environmental protection in trade protection is often difficult for exporters to predict the specific content and changes, and it is difficult to adapt. 4 set discriminatory. Some countries often take different measures to distort the principle of national treatment according to their specific trade conditions with other countries. 5 The severity of the impact. Once the green barrier comes into effect, its effect is often greater than that of tariff barriers. Moreover, such measures can easily spread from one country to many countries, causing a chain reaction. 6 Controversial. Due to the wide range of coverage, the lack of unified standards, and the intertwining of concealment and legitimacy, it is often prone to disagreements and difficult to coordinate.
The impact of green walls on my country's agricultural product trade As agriculture is related to the national economy and people's livelihood, there is a direct and extremely close relationship between the production, use, consumption and processing of agricultural products and the environment. Green barriers will inevitably have a significant impact on agricultural products. From a long-term perspective, its impact will become more and more obvious and direct. As developed countries have relatively developed economies, relatively strong financial strength, relatively advanced technology, relatively strong awareness of environmental protection, relatively high levels of environmental protection, and stricter environmental protection standards. Due to many restrictions in developing countries, its environmental protection level and standards cannot be the same as those of developed countries in the near future. Since the current green trade barriers of various countries are set according to the domestic environmental protection level and standards of each country, it is very easy for agricultural products from such a developed domestic market to enter the market of developing countries, while those of developing countries However, agricultural products are often rejected from developed countries because they cannot meet the environmental protection standards of developed countries. Therefore, this kind of international environmental protection standards in the hands of developed countries is extremely unfavorable for developing countries to carry out agricultural trade.
From this perspective, it is impossible for the agricultural product trade between developed and developing countries to stand on the same starting line.
my country is a developing country, and the level of environmental protection is still relatively low. There are many factors that are not conducive to environmental protection in the process and method of production and processing of agricultural products, including the composition and performance of packaging. Generally speaking, the negative effects of green barriers on my country's agricultural trade are far greater than the positive effects. These aspects have caused other countries to prohibit import, return and claim strict sanitation and quarantine systems for my country’s agricultural products. my country’s frozen chickens are not in compliance with the EU's 1 sanitary quarantine standards. China has decided to prohibit my country’s frozen chickens from entering the EU market from August 1, 1996. In September 1998, after an EU veterinary expert delegation came to China for inspection, in the report on the inspection of my country’s animal and plant quarantine system, quality assurance system and related processing plants, it was believed that my quarantine system and quality assurance system did not conform to the EU Request, may continue to prohibit my country from exporting poultry meat to the EU. Japan can only import after the latest poison treatment issued on January 16, 1999, which will undoubtedly increase the export cost of my country's pork, beef and mutton. Japan’s phytosanitary law enforcement rules have banned most of our country’s vegetables and fruit products.
Agricultural products production and processing technology standards developed countries often pass legislative means. Formulate strict mandatory technical standards to restrict the import of foreign commodities. Many products in our country cannot enter the international market due to strict technical requirements. For example, my country's beef cannot enter the EU market, pork and beef can hardly be exported to the United States, and longan, orange, apple, and pear cannot be exported to the United States.
Pesticide and toxic substance residues Nikkei’s inspection items for imported rice have been increased from 42 to 12. Frozen chickens with residues of more than 0.01 Fuke ball powder are refused to be imported, causing some products in our country to be returned because they do not meet the requirements.
Packaging In 1998, I smashed and stole the beauty of the wooden packaging and the mountain corpse contained longhorn beetle and was restricted. Following the Canadian fire, the United Kingdom also quickly imposed restrictions on my country's wooden packaging.
Protection of plant and animal species In 1995, the US Food and Drug Administration announced the automatic detention of shrimp products from China. The reason was that my country’s fishing boats were not equipped with turtle escape devices, which endangered the lives of sea turtles. This reduced my country’s export of frozen dragon worms from US$12.039 million in 1995 to US$238,000 in 1997. Frozen crawfish decreased from US$238,000 to US$24,000 in the same period.
It is an irreversible trend in the world to take countermeasures to protect the environment and take the path of sustainable development. The sustainable development of agriculture is the foundation and indispensable part of sustainable development. The ultimate solution to breaking the green barriers to agricultural trade is to implement a sustainable development strategy.
The destruction of the agricultural environment in my country is mainly due to industrial waste water for irrigation or the use of polluted river water to irrigate air pollution, excessive amounts of chemical fertilizers, improper fertilization methods, and pesticides and other pollution to the agricultural ecological environment and agricultural products. The main reason is the lack of environmental awareness. Strong; imperfect legal system; insufficient law enforcement; low technical level; weak economic strength; incomplete economic system, including unclear asset property rights; incomplete property rights; incomplete resources; insufficient market or weak market; inadequate competition; lack of enthusiasm and ability of property rights entities; inadequate or ineffective government intervention, etc. . To this end, we should start from the following aspects: 1. Strengthen the publicity and education of farmers and rural grassroots workers. In addition to improving environmental awareness, newspaper broadcasts should be fully utilized. In addition to television art and other means and formal environmental education, it is necessary to train rural backbone forces on a large scale in a planned and step-by-step manner to lay a solid mass foundation for environmental protection.
The establishment and strengthening of environmental protection agencies should be added to lead the establishment of the Ministry of Environmental Protection. The township level should also set up special managers, and towns and townships where conditions permit can set up environmental protection stations. Environmental protection agencies should deploy high-quality talents who understand environmental, economic and social knowledge, and they should be given corresponding powers at the same time.
Formulate and improve technical standards and monitoring information systems for rural and agricultural environmental management. Provide scientific and effective evaluation methods for agricultural environmental management. Ecological agricultural economic standards. Ecologically harmless production models and technical evaluation standards. Agricultural chemicals. Environmental safety standards. Ecological economic development planning. Technical guidelines. Agricultural ecological monitoring indicators and methods. At the same time, ecological monitoring should be improved. Network, develop agricultural environment information database to provide timely information on changes in the agricultural environment.
Strictly implement relevant national laws. Laws and regulations, etc. are true; to implement laws and regulations on environmental protection of agricultural customs.
Formulate and improve the strict implementation of relevant policies and systems, and strengthen rural environmental protection policy research. To establish an agricultural environmental management system, the policies that need to be studied in the future include the collection of agricultural ecological compensation fees, rural environmental protection social investment, the use of market mechanisms to protect and improve the environment, township industrial pollution control, ecological agriculture industrialization and its promotion, ecological agricultural technology development, etc. policy. In the future, we should continue to implement the simultaneous system, with the submission of environmental impact report system, land occupation approval system, forest logging system, etc., as the core management system, rural economic model and rural natural resource utilization direction evaluation system.
To actively strengthen international cooperation, we must take into account the actual situation of our country, draw on the effective agricultural environmental management systems of foreign countries, especially developed countries, and introduce advanced foreign environmental protection technologies. It is necessary to actively participate in the mutual recognition of international standards and sign mutual recognition agreements with countries to obtain a permit for my country's agricultural products to enter the international market, in order to serve the elimination of green trade barriers.
Seven, organize relevant departments and personnel as soon as possible to regulate the environmental laws and regulations of various countries, especially developed countries. technical standard. Restrictive measures and green trade wall ridges and other aspects of systematic research should still learn from the experience of the customs and absorb relevant lessons to protect them and formulate relevant countermeasures and make efforts in accordance with relevant international rules and conventions.
Establish and improve economic mechanisms that are conducive to agricultural environmental protection. 1 Clarify property rights and make them more secure. Object ownership of resources, use rights, possession rights, disposal rights, income rights, etc., to specific property rights subjects, and inject them with the power of property rights that care about their own interests. As for the resources and atmosphere that cannot be solved through property rights arrangements, policies and laws should be adopted to formulate rigid binding indicators for protection. 2 To encourage the trading of emission rights as a supplement to the levy. According to the local environmental protection goals and the needs of economic development, the government determines the quantity of emission rights to be auctioned to relevant economic entities through matching methods such as auctions. Economic entities can operate as an intangible asset after obtaining the emission rights. When production is carried out by oneself, the right to discharge pollution is in his own hands. When the emission right becomes a structural residual asset, it can be transferred to others through the market under a predetermined plan. 3 User charges. This is a fee levied on users. It is related to pollution control costs, waste collection and treatment costs, administrative expenses, etc., and has no direct relationship with the damage caused by pollution to the environment. 4 Improve the degree of organization of agricultural economic entities. The decentralized property rights should be integrated through a defined organizational form to form an independent entity with strong negotiation capabilities. We believe that on the basis of the capitalization of resources, each property right entity should set up a special asset operation organization to implement capital management of its resources. National resources should be managed by the State-owned Assets Administration Bureau.
Collective resources shall be operated by organizations such as the collective establishment of members on behalf of the general meeting, the board of directors and the board of supervisors. For private property rights, an intermediary organization should be established to protect property rights. 5 In the absence of an arbitration agency for resources and the environment, the environmental protection department can temporarily make the advance payment return system. An advance payment is levied on products with potential contamination in the environment. If the collected products are not at the specified collection point after use and pollution is avoided, the advance payment shall be refunded to the user. For example, after the end of the production process, the enterprise cannot pay the relevant taxes or make up for the losses caused to the relevant bodies. Deposit + then refund. The main source of environmental pollution in China's agricultural environment is village and township enterprises in rural areas. However, the development of township and village enterprises lacks correct guidance and reasonable planning. The development of township and village enterprises presents a situation where there is a large number of villages and villages where smoke is emitted everywhere, small in scale, backward in equipment, and lack of clean production technology. Furthermore, the life cycle of enterprises is short, with great ups and downs.5 A considerable number of enterprises cannot operate normally and cannot pay taxes and fees in accordance with regulations. Therefore, this system is very necessary in rural areas. 6 Promote agricultural clean production techniques. In addition to the implementation of cleaner production technology in industry, agriculture itself promotes cleaner production technology to meet the needs of agricultural environmental protection. The technology has been moved to the United States. , Trade Lexiong 6 period 5 minutes. Xinmao 4 protects 3! Discuss the influence of wave 1. , Trade 1 is the first to make a sound and grass Li Yuqin Li, editor in charge, School of Economics and Management, China Agricultural University, Beijing l0094
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