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The impact and countermeasures of green barriers on China's agricultural product trade

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  • Release time: 2024-04-30

The impact and countermeasures of green wall ridges on China's agricultural product trade. Since the emergence and development of the sustainable development trend, environmental protection has become increasingly prominent. It should be said that in order to implement sustainable development strategies, it is necessary to establish the legitimacy of environmental protection exceptions. Unfortunately, these environmental exceptions are being used by emerging trade protectionism for trade protection purposes. This is mainly due to the increasingly strict provisions on tariff barriers and traditional non-tariff barriers in the agreements formed during the Uruguay Round negotiations, the improvement of trade transparency, and the limitation of traditional trade protection progress. Trade protection requires us to seek new trade channels to implement our trade protection strategy. In this context, green trade protectionism has quickly gained popularity, with the basic view that international trade should prioritize environmental protection, reduce and eliminate the production and sales of polluting and environmentally damaging products, encourage the production and sales of environmentally friendly products, and promote the expansion of the environmental protection market.

On the basis of adhering to the principles of non discrimination, market openness, and fairness, in order to maintain the environment and the physical health of residents, any country has the right to take tax and non-tariff measures to control the export of products that are heavily contaminated with the environment. Any product should include environmental and resource costs in its costs, internalizing environmental and resource costs, and its calculation standards should be international standards. To ensure that world trade is conducted on a fair basis, no country can use any reason as an excuse for 7-inch enterprises to provide environmental subsidies. Promoting regional economism can directly reflect the impact of unfavorable environmental conditions locally. This is conducive to increasing people's support for environmental protection measures. The theory of green trade protectionism provides new theoretical basis for trade protectionists. At present, green barriers have become an important barrier in international trade, and their impact on international trade will be significant from the development trend. The relevant content types and characteristics of green barriers are relatively broad, including the following content: 1. Green technology standards. In April 1995, developed countries began implementing the international environmental monitoring standard system by controlling the International Organization for Standardization, requiring products to meet the 1509000 series standard system of the European Union! The environmental management system of Dong 715014000 requires products from EU countries to be produced, sold, and used in all aspects. At each stage, it is necessary to meet certain technical standards and achieve a green environment. Biao Zhong. The shape on the product or its packaging indicates that the product not only meets the quality requirements of the standard bottle, but also meets environmental protection requirements during production, use, and consumption processing. It does not harm the ecological environment or human health. For example, Germany's blue angel, Canada's environmental choice, Japan's ecological symbol, the European Union's environmental protection symbol, and so on. To export products to these countries, it is necessary to apply for and review them and obtain a green pass before proceeding. 3. Green packaging system. Packaging is required to conserve resources, reduce waste, and facilitate recycling or natural decomposition after use. Such as the German Packaging Waste Disposal Act in Germany and the Japan Recycling Regulations and Waste Disposal Conditions Amendment. 4. Green health quarantine system. This system has always existed, but now it is increasingly being strengthened. At the 24th United Nations Codex Committee on Pesticide Residues in April 1993, the maximum residue levels, maximum residue levels, and guiding residue levels of 176 pesticides in various commodities were discussed. 5 Green subsidies. It refers to a means of internalizing resource and environmental costs to reduce external economic effects and maximize the integration of costs and benefits between production and operators.

Although different countries have different specific practices, there are varying degrees of environmental restrictions throughout the entire process from production, packaging, transportation to use. According to the different stages of product formation and movement, its content includes 1) restrictive measures related to production methods and processing processes. Nowadays, many countries have realized that relying solely on controlling the end of product pollution is no longer suitable for the needs, so they have successively formulated measures to control the pollution; The processing method of adding L to 1 must comply with the requirements of PPMPm No. ssinS In the technology trade barrier agreement signed in the Uruguay Round, PlWlmJ made a breakthrough provision for the overseas implementation of, 1, that is, if this type of small precision product function is affected, the importing country has the right to restrict the import of products that do not meet the domestic listening standards. The regulations regarding the loading, storage, and transportation of goods to the shore, and even the prohibition of transportation, shall apply. 3. Restrictive measures regarding product component performance and usage. The restrictive measures in this regard involve advertising. The content included is also diverse and often changes, making it difficult to adapt. For example, if one book is needed, Canadians and others require it to be imported. 1. The rootstock content of the Chinese product, Aspergillus, should not exceed 1 pound. France prohibits the import of candies containing erythromycin. 2. The import cost of imported vegetables stipulates that the residual pesticide content in vegetables should not exceed 10 parts per million, and so on.

The characteristics of green trade barriers can be seen from their various contents. Green trade barriers have the following characteristics: 1. Strong technicality, that is, the identification of the production, use, consumption, and processing of products includes a large number of technical components. 2. With greater flexibility, Shanchang is equipped with national environmental standards and standards, and there is also a wide range of options available. The fact that Xu Jing uses the name of environmental protection to protect trade often makes it difficult for exporters to anticipate specific content and changes, making it difficult to adapt. 4. Discriminatory nature. Some countries often adopt different means to distort the principle of national treatment based on their specific trade situation with other countries. The severity of the impact. Once green barriers take effect, their effects are often greater than those of tariff barriers. And this measure can easily spread from one country to multiple countries, creating a chain reaction. 6. Highly controversial. Due to its broad scope, inconsistent standards, and intertwined concealment and legality, it is often difficult to reconcile and create disagreements.

The impact of green barriers on China's agricultural trade is closely related to the national economy and people's livelihood. The production, use, consumption, and treatment of agricultural products are directly and closely related to the environment. Green barriers will inevitably have a significant impact on agricultural products. From a long-term perspective, its impact will become increasingly profound, evident, and direct. Due to the relatively developed economy, strong financial strength, advanced technology, strong environmental awareness, and higher level of environmental protection in developed countries, environmental standards are also stricter. Due to various limitations, developing countries are unlikely to have the same level of environmental protection and standards as developed countries in the near future. Due to the current green trade barriers set by various countries based on their domestic environmental protection levels and standards, it is difficult for agricultural products from developed countries such as China to enter the Chinese market. However, agricultural products from developing countries are often excluded from the developed countries due to their difficulty in meeting their environmental standards. Therefore, the international environmental standards that are held in the hands of developed countries are extremely unfavorable for developing countries to carry out agricultural trade.

From this perspective, it is impossible for agricultural trade between developed and developing countries to start from the same starting line.

China is a developing country with a relatively low level of environmental protection. There are many factors that are not conducive to environmental protection, such as the production and processing of agricultural products, packaging, transportation components, and performance. Overall, the negative effects of green barriers on China's agricultural trade far outweigh the positive effects. These aspects have led to other countries prohibiting the import, return, and claim of agricultural products from our country. Strict health quarantine systems have been implemented, and China's frozen chickens have been banned from entering the EU market since August 1, 1996, due to non-compliance with EU 1 health quarantine standards. In September 1998, an EU veterinary expert delegation visited China for inspection. In a report on the inspection of China's animal and plant epidemic prevention and quarantine system, quality assurance system, and related processing plants, it was found that our epidemic prevention and quarantine system and quality assurance system do not meet EU requirements and may continue to prohibit China from exporting poultry meat to the EU. The latest drug treatment introduced by Japan on January 16, 1999 will undoubtedly increase the export cost of pork, beef, and mutton in China. The implementation rules of Japan's phytosanitary law have led to the prohibition of most vegetables and fruit products in China.

Developed countries often adopt legislative measures to standardize the production and processing technology of agricultural products. Establish strict mandatory technical standards and restrict the import of foreign goods. Many products in our country are unable to enter the international market due to strict technical requirements. For example, Chinese beef cannot enter the EU market, pork and beef can hardly be exported to the United States, and longan, orange, apple, and pear cannot be exported to the United States.

The detection items for pesticide and toxic substance residues in rice by Nissi have been increased from 42 to 12. Frozen chickens with a residue of more than 0.01 in Fukeqiu powder have refused to be imported, resulting in some products in China being returned due to not meeting the requirements.

In 1998, I was restricted from smashing and stealing American wooden packaging for mountain corpses containing beetles. The UK has also quickly imposed restrictions on wooden packaging in China.

In 1995, the US Food and Drug Administration announced automatic detention of shrimp products from China due to the lack of turtle escape devices on Chinese fishing boats, which endangered the survival of turtles. This led to a decrease in China's export value of frozen crayfish from $12.039 million in 1995 to $238000 in 1997, and a decrease in frozen crayfish from $238000 to $24000 during the same period.

Countermeasures to protect the environment and pursue sustainable development are an irreversible trend in the world. The sustainable development of agriculture is the foundation and indispensable component of sustainable development. The ultimate solution to breaking down green barriers in agricultural trade lies in implementing sustainable development strategies.

The damage to the agricultural environment in our country is mainly caused by the irrigation of industrial wastewater or the use of polluted river water for air pollution. The excessive amount of fertilizer and improper fertilization methods, as well as the contamination of agricultural ecological environment and agricultural products by pesticides, are the main reasons for weak environmental awareness; The legal system is not sound; Insufficient enforcement efforts; Low technological level, weak economic strength, incomplete economic system, including unclear asset property rights, incomplete property rights, lack of or thin resource markets, insufficient market competition, lack of enthusiasm and ability of property rights entities, weak or ineffective government intervention, etc. Therefore, we should start from the following aspects: 1. Strengthen the publicity and education of farmers and rural grassroots workers. Improving environmental awareness should make full use of newspaper broadcasts. In addition to television, cultural and other means, as well as formal environmental education, it is necessary to plan and systematically train rural backbone forces on a large scale, laying a solid mass foundation for environmental protection.

At present, the establishment and strengthening of environmental protection institutions should be strengthened in order to lead the Ministry of Environmental Protection's 1. Township level officials should also be appointed, and environmental protection stations can be established in townships with conditions. Environmental protection agencies should allocate high-quality talents who understand environmental, economic, and social knowledge, and at the same time empower them accordingly.

Develop and improve technical standards and monitoring information systems for rural and agricultural environmental management. To provide scientific and effective evaluation methods for agricultural environmental management, ecological agricultural economic standards, ecological harmless production models and technical evaluation standards, agricultural chemical environmental safety standards, ecological economic development planning preparation methods, technical guidelines, agricultural ecological monitoring indicators and methods, etc. At the same time, ecological monitoring networks should be improved, and agricultural environmental information databases should be developed to provide timely information on changes in the agricultural environment.

Strictly implement relevant national laws. Regulations, rules, and other relevant regulations; Implement laws and regulations on environmental waste protection related to agriculture.

Develop and improve strict implementation of relevant policies and systems, and strengthen research on rural environmental protection policies. The policies that need to be studied in the future to establish an agricultural environmental management system include the collection of agricultural ecological compensation fees, rural environmental protection and social investment, the use of market mechanisms to protect and improve the environment, industrial pollution control in townships, the industrialization and promotion of ecological agriculture, and the development of ecological agriculture technology. In the future, we should continue to adhere to the implementation of the simultaneous system, including the submission of environmental impact reports, the land occupation approval system, the forest logging system, and other core psychological systems. The evaluation system for rural economic models and the direction of rural natural resource utilization should also be implemented.

Actively strengthening international cooperation should be combined with China's actual situation, by drawing on effective agricultural environmental management systems from foreign countries, especially developed countries, introducing advanced environmental protection technologies from abroad, and utilizing foreign investment to develop environmentally friendly agriculture to serve the sustainable development of agriculture in China. At the same time, it is necessary to actively participate in international standard mutual recognition and sign mutual recognition agreements with countries to obtain a pass for China's agricultural products to enter the international market, and to serve the elimination of green trade barriers.

Organize relevant departments and personnel as soon as possible to comply with the environmental laws and regulations of various countries, especially developed countries. Technical standards. In terms of conducting systematic research on restrictive measures and green trade barriers, we should still draw lessons from relevant experiences and lessons learned. In terms of ignoring their protection, we should formulate relevant countermeasures and strive for them based on relevant international rules and practices.

Establish and improve an economic mechanism conducive to agricultural environmental protection, clarify property rights, and enhance their safety. Objectify the ownership, usage, disposal, and profit rights of resources to specific property owners, injecting them with property rights dynamics that care about their own interests. For resources and atmospheres that cannot be resolved through property rights arrangements, hard constraint indicators should be established through policies and laws to protect them. Encourage emissions trading as a supplement to the collection of fees. The government determines the number of pollution discharge rights based on local environmental protection goals and economic development needs, and auctions them to relevant economic entities through matching auctions and other means. After obtaining pollution discharge rights, economic entities can operate them as intangible assets. When production is carried out by oneself, the right to discharge pollutants is in one's own hands. After the emission rights become a structural residual asset, they can be transferred to others through the market under a predetermined plan. 3. User fees. This is a fee levied on users, which is related to pollution control costs, waste collection and treatment fees, administrative expenses, etc., and has no direct relationship with the damage caused by pollution to the environment. 4. Improve the organizational level of agricultural economic entities. Decentralized property rights should be integrated through a fixed organizational form to form entities with independent interests and strong negotiation capabilities. We believe that on the basis of resource assetization, specialized asset operation institutions should be established by each property owner to implement capital management of their resources. National resources should be centrally managed by the State owned Assets Administration.

Collective resources should be operated by members of the collective, such as the board of directors, supervisory board, etc. For private property rights, intermediary organizations should be established to provide protection services. In the absence of a resource and environmental arbitration agency, the environmental protection department can temporarily implement a prepayment refund system. A prepayment shall be levied on products with potential contamination in the environment. If the collected products do not reach the designated collection point after use and avoid pollution, the prepayment shall be refunded to the users. If the enterprise is unable to pay relevant taxes and fees or cannot compensate for the losses caused to the relevant entities after the production process is completed. Deposit+Refund. The main source of pollution in my agricultural environment is rural township enterprises. However, the development of township enterprises lacks correct guidance and reasonable planning. The development of township enterprises presents a situation where villages ignite fires and smoke everywhere, with a large number, small scale, outdated equipment, and a lack of clean production technology. Furthermore, the lifespan of enterprises is short, with ups and downs. A considerable number of enterprises are unable to operate normally and cannot pay taxes and fees in accordance with regulations. Therefore, it is very necessary to implement this system in rural areas. Promote agricultural clean production technologies and means. In addition to promoting clean production technology in industry, the promotion of clean production technology in agriculture itself is not only important for agricultural environmental protection, but also for environmental trade. The relocation of technology spraying courses to the United States has led to the implementation of trade barriers in Xinlang 1 by the seven districts and leagues., Phase 6 of Maole Xiong takes 5 minutes. New Trade 4 Protection 3! On the influence of Shu Qi on Wave 1., Li Yuqin, responsible editor of the School of Economics and Management at China Agricultural University, Beijing 10094

The company adheres to the principle of social responsibility and the business strategy of "three reliance and three directions", that is, attracting customers through taste, retaining customers through quality, and developing customers through brand; To seek efficiency from scale, efficiency from management, and effectiveness from the team, we strive to explore new forms of security services and continuously expand new areas of security services. The company currently has a security team of nearly 1700 people, consisting of 5 senior security guards as the core, forming an efficient, high-quality, standardized, and professional management and service team. The company has a security headquarters in Dunkou, a marketing center in Hanjie, and four branch offices. There are 8 security brigades under the headquarters, and 1 inspection team and 1 special service team have been established. At the same time, an alarm monitoring center and an intelligent security center have been established to provide comprehensive services such as security guards, patrols, guardianship, security checks, regional order maintenance, safety assessment, security planning, large-scale security, alarm monitoring, intelligent security, front-end etiquette, property management, etc. for more than 100 clients in Hubei Province, including domestic and foreign institutions, groups, financial departments, foreign-funded enterprises, office buildings, hotels, entertainment venues, residential communities, SOHO, etc., making an indelible contribution to maintaining social order stability and showcasing the security style of the new era.

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